Grain mineral contents under elevated carbon dioxide

How will elevated carbon dioxide affect wheat grain macro and micro nutrient concentrations and grain functional properties.


Under elevated carbon dioxide, grain protein content declines due to lower plant N content during growth. Read more

Year of initiation:2010
Year of completion:2011


04 Sep 2013

Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Wheat Nutrition
Papers presented at the 2013 IPNC, Turkey and the ANZ Fertilizer Industry Conference

Interpretive Summary


The impact of elevated [CO2] at two different sowing times over 2 years on wheat (cv. Yitpi) grain physical, chemical, rheological quality traits under Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) was investigated. Most of the grain physical qualities improved under elevated [CO2], but protein concentration was reduced by 12%. Similarly, most of the grain macro- and micronutrient concentrations were reduced at elevated [CO2], while total mineral uptakes of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, and Fe were increased.


Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yitpi) was grown under field conditions in the Australian Grains Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (AGFACE) facility during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. Current ambient CO2 (384 µmol/mol) and elevated CO2 (550 µmol/mol) were combined with two different times of sowing (TOS): A “normal sowing” date (TOS1) contrasted with “late sowing” (TOS2) to investigate the CO2 interaction with TOS which provide different grain filling temperature on grain quality.

Updates & Reports


2012 Annual Report


Project Description

Project Leader

Nimesha Fernado, University of Melbourne
Rob Norton, International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI)

Project Cooperators

Peter Howie, University of Melbourne
Saman Seneweera, University of Melbourne
Joe Panozzo, Victorian Department of Primary Industries
Michael Tausz, University of Melbourne
Glenn Fitzgerald, Victorian Department of Primary Industries

IPNI Staff

R. M. Norton


Oceania \ Australia and New Zealand \ AUS \ Victoria \ Wimmera


4r rate, 4r source, crop quality, plant analysis


Boron (B), Calcium (Ca), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Sulfur (S), Zinc (Zn)